Thursday, November 3, 2011


[Ancestral Link: Marguerite Anderson (Miller), daughter of Hannah Anderson (Anderson), daughter of Mary Margaret Edmiston (Anderson), daughter of Martha Jane Snow (Edmiston), daughter of Gardner Snow, son of James Snow, son of Zerrubbabel Snow, son of Abigail Brigham (Snow), daughter of Gershom Brigham, son of Mary Rice (Brigham), daughter of Henry Rice, son of Edmund Rice, son of Thomas Rice, son of William Rice, son of Katherine Howard (Rice), daughter of Thomas Howard.]


Final burial site of Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk

at St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham, Suffolk, England

Framlington Castle where Thomas Howard died

Tomb of Second Duke of Norfolk

At Framlingham-it's thought the bodies of the 2nd and 1st Dukes are also included, having been reeintered after the dissalution of the monastary they were originally buried in.

Howard Castle

Howard defending his allegiance to Richard III before Henry VII after the Battle of Bosworth Field.

As the Earl of Surrey, Howard fought for King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, following this he was imprisoned for several years before having some titles and estates restored. He continued in the service of the Tudor dynasty. Beginning in 1497, Howard and the English repelled Scottish assaults at Norham Castle, a stronghold of the Bishopric of Durham, among others. In 1502, a treaty was signed between Scotland and England ending hostilities for a time, and Howard was able to rest from his military career for a while. He was appointed Lieutenant General of the North.

In 1511, Lord Surrey was appointed Warden-General of the Northern Marches. In 1513, the Scots invaded England to meet their treaty obligations to France under the Auld Alliance. At the Battle of Flodden Field, the English, under Howard's command, crushed the Scots. With victory, Lord Surrey was restored to his father's title of Duke of Norfolk in 1514, which title had been forfeit since 1485 because of his father's support of Richard.

Burial location
He died in 1524 and was buried in Thetford Priory. The priory was abandoned at the Dissolution of the Monasteries and while some of the Howard family tombs were moved to the St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham it is not known whether his tomb was moved also. Fragments of what is thought to be from his tomb were found during excavations.

Where his body now lies is not known for certain. A monumental brass depicting him was formerly in the Church of St. Mary at Lambeth so his body could have been moved to the Howard family chapel where many members of his family (including Anne Boleyn's mother) were interred.

However, it is known that there are also four coffins in the tomb of the 3rd Duke of Norfolk at St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham, so possibly the 2nd Duke and the 1st Duke of Norfolk were buried in the tomb of their descendant.

Coat of Arms
Augmentation of Honour
To commemorate his victory at the Battle of Flodden Field, Henry VIII granted an Augmentation of Honour to Howard's coat of arms. It is a modification of the Royal coat of arms of Scotland. Instead of its normal rampant position, the lion is shown with an arrow through its mouth. He bore, Gules a Bend between six Cross-crosslets fitchy Argent. For augmentation to be charged on the bend, the Royal Shield of Scotland, having a demi-lion only, which is pierced through the mouth with an arrow.[1] The arms can still be seen as a quarter in the arms of Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk.

Marriages and issue
1. Elizabeth Tilney, daughter of Sir Frederick Tilney of Ashwellthorpe and Elizabeth Cheney.
Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk
Lord Edmund Howard, father of Catherine Howard, queen consort to Henry VIII of England
Henry Howard
Edward Howard (admiral)
Muriel Howard. Married John Grey, 2nd Viscount Lisle.
Lady Elizabeth Howard, wife to Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire, mother of Queen Anne Boleyn, and grandmother of Queen Elizabeth I of England.
Richard Howard.
Sir John Howard.
Charles Howard.
2. Agnes Tilney (1478-1545), daughter of Hugh Tilney of Boston and Eleanor Tailboys, and his first wife's cousin. As Dowager Duchess of Norfolk, she was involved in the fall of her step-granddaughter, Catherine Howard, in 1542.
William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham
Lord Thomas Howard (1511-1537).
Elizabeth Howard (died 1536). Married Henry Radclyffe, 2nd Earl of Sussex and was mother of Thomas Radclyffe, 3rd Earl of Sussex.
Catherine Howard (died 1554). Married Henry Daubney, 1st Earl of Bridgewater.
Dorothy Howard. Married Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby.
George Howard.
Agnes Howard.
Anne Howard. Married John de Vere, 14th Earl of Oxford.

found on

Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, KG, Earl Marshal (1443 – 21 May 1524), styled Earl of Surrey from 1483 to 1514, was the only son of John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk by his first wife, Katherine Moleyns. He served four monarchs as a soldier and statesman.

Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, was born in 1443 at Stoke by Nayland, Suffolk, the only son of John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk, by his first wife, Katherine, the daughter of William Moleyns (died 8 June 1425) and his wife Margery. He was educated at Thetford Grammar School.

While a youth he entered the service of King Edward IV as a henchman. Howard took the King's side when war broke out in 1469 with the Earl of Warwick, and took sanctuary at Colchester when the King fled to Holland in 1470. Howard rejoined the royal forces at Edward's return to England in 1471, and was severely wounded at the Battle of Barnet on 14 April 1471. He was appointed an esquire of the body in 1473. On 14 January 1478 he was knighted by Edward IV at the marriage of the King's second son, the young Duke of York, and Lady Anne Mowbray (died 1483).

In the final decade of his life Norfolk continued his career as a courtier, diplomat and soldier. In 1514 he joined Wolsey and Foxe in negotiating the marriage of Mary Tudor to King Louis XII of France, and escorted her to France for the wedding. On 1 May 1517 he led a private army of 1300 retainers into London to suppress the Evil May Day riots. In May 1521 he presided as Lord High Steward over the trial of Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham. According to Head, 'he pronounced the sentence of death with tears streaming down his face'.

By the spring of 1522 Norfolk was almost 80 years of age and in failing health. He withdrew from court, resigned as Lord Treasurer in favour of his son in December of that year, and after attending the opening of Parliament in April 1523, retired to his ducal castle at Framlingham in Suffolk where he died on 21 May 1524. His funeral and burial on 22 June at Thetford Priory were said to have been 'spectacular and enormously expensive, costing over £1300 and including a procession of 400 hooded men bearing torches and an elaborate bier surmounted with 100 wax effigies and 700 candles', befitting the richest and most powerful peer in England. After the dissolution of Thetford Priory, the Howard tombs were moved to the Church of St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham. A now-lost monumental brass depicting the 2nd Duke was formerly in the Church of St. Mary at Lambeth.

On 30 April 1472 Howard married Elizabeth Tilney, the daughter of Sir Frederick Tilney of Ashwellthorpe, Norfolk, and widow of Sir Humphrey Bourchier, slain at Barnet, son and heir apparent of Sir John Bourchier, 1st Baron Berners. They had issue:

Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk
Sir Edward Howard
Lord Edmund Howard, father of Henry VIII's fifth Queen, Katherine Howard
Sir John Howard
Henry Howard
Charles Howard
Henry Howard (the younger)
Richard Howard
Elizabeth Howard, married Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire, and was mother of Queen Anne Boleyn, and grandmother of Queen Elizabeth
Muriel Howard (died 1512), married firstly John Grey, Viscount Lisle (died 1504), and secondly Sir Thomas Knyvet
daughter (died young)

Surrey's first wife died on 4 April 1497, and on 8 November 1497 he married, by dispensation dated 17 August 1497, her cousin, Agnes Tilney, the daughter of Hugh Tilney of Skirbeck and Boston, Lincolnshire and a daughter of Walter Tailboys. They had issue:
William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham
Lord Thomas Howard (1511–1537)
Richard Howard (died 1517)
Dorothy Howard, married Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby
Anne Howard, married John de Vere, 14th Earl of Oxford
Katherine Howard (died 1554), married firstly Rhys ap Griffith, and secondly Henry Daubeney, 1st Earl of Bridgewater (died1548).
Elizabeth Howard (died 1534), married Henry Radcliffe, 2nd Earl of Sussex.
found on

Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke Norfolk
Thomas Howard Norfolk, 2nd duke of 1443-1524, English nobleman, son of John Howard, 1st duke of Norfolk. He fought at the battle of Bosworth (1485) in which his father was killed. He himself was captured, attainted, and placed in the Tower of London. He was released (1489) by Henry VII and restored to the earldom of Surrey, which he had received in 1483, but not to the dukedom of Norfolk. He was entrusted by Henry VII with the care of the northern borders and in 1501 was made lord treasurer. Recognized as the leading general in England, he commanded the army that defeated (1513) the Scots at Flodden and was created (1514) duke of Norfolk. Although an influential member of Henry VIII's privy council, he was gradually forced to relinquish much of his power to the ascending Thomas Wolsey. He served as guardian of the realm during Henry's absence in 1520. In 1521, acting as lord high
found on

Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Surrey, 2nd Duke of Norfolk (1442-1524)
THOMAS HOWARD, I Earl of Surrey and second Duke of Norfolk of the Howard house (1443-1524), warrior and statesman, was only son of Sir John Howard, afterwards first duke of Norfolk, by his wife Catharine, daughter of William, lord Moleyns. He was born in 1443, was educated at the school at Thetford, and began a long career of service at court as henchman to Edward IV.

He took part in the war which broke out in 1469 between the king and the Earl of Warwick, and when, in 1470, Edward was driven to flee to Holland, Howard took sanctuary at Colchester. On Edward's return in 1471, Howard joined him and fought by his side in the battle of Barnet. On 30 April 1472 he married Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Sir Frederick Tilney, and widow of Humphrey, lord Berners. Soon afterwards he went as a volunteer to the camp of Charles, duke of Burgundy, who was threatening war against Louis XI of France. He did not see much service, and after the truce of Senlis came back to England, where he was made esquire of the body to Edward IV in 1473. In June 1475 he led six men-at-arms and two hundred archers to join the king's army in France; but Edward soon made peace with Louis XI, and led his forces home without a battle.

Howard then took up his abode at his wife's house of Ashwellthorpe Hall, Norfolk, where he lived the life of a country gentleman, and in 1476 was made sheriff of the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. On 18 January 1478 he was knighted by Edward IV at the marriage between the king's second son, the young Duke of York (then created also Duke of Norfolk), and Lady Anne Mowbray, only child of John, duke of Norfolk. Anne Mowbray died in 1483, before the consummation of her marriage, and the direct line of the Mowbrays became extinct, whereupon Howard's father, as next of kin, was created Duke of Norfolk, and his son Earl of Surrey. In the same year Surrey was made knight of the Garter, was sworn of the privy council, and was appointed lord steward of the household.

Surrey had now taken his place as a courtier and an official, and henceforth was distinguished by loyalty to the actual wearer of the crown, whoever he might be. He acquiesced in Richard III's usurpation, and carried the sword of state at his coronation. He and his father fought for Richard at Bosworth Field, where his father was killed and he was taken prisoner. He was attainted by the first parliament of Henry VII, and his estates were forfeited. He was also committed to the Tower, where he remained for three years and a half, receiving the liberal allowance of £2 a week for his board. Misfortune did not shake his principle of loyalty to the powers that be, and he refused to seek release by favouring rebellion. When, in June 1487, the Earl of Lincoln invaded England, and the lieutenant of the Tower offered to open the doors to Surrey, he refused the chance of escape. Henry VII soon saw that Surrey could be converted into an official, and would serve as a conspicuous example to other nobles. In January 1489 he was released, and was restored to his earldom, though the calculating king kept the greater part of his forfeited lands, and gave back only those which he held in right of his wife, and those which had been granted to the Earl of Oxford. In May he was sent to put down a rising in Yorkshire, caused by the pressure of taxation. The Earl of Northumberland had been slain by the insurgents, whom Surrey quickly subdued and hanged their leader in York. The care of the borders was now entrusted to Surrey, who was made lieutenant-general of the north, was placed on the commission of peace for Northumberland, and was appointed sub-warden of the east and middle marches, which were under the nominal charge of Arthur, prince of Wales. In the spring of 1492 he showed his vigilance by putting down a rising at Acworth, near Pomfret, so promptly that nothing is known of it save an obscure mention.

Surrey was now reckoned the chief general in England, and though summoned southwards when Henry VII threatened an expedition against France, was chiefly employed in watching the Scottish border against the Scottish king and Perkin Warbeck. In 1497 James IV laid siege to Norham Castle, but retreated before the rapid advance of Surrey, who retaliated by a raid into Scotland, where he challenged the Scottish king to battle; but James did not venture an engagement, and bad weather forced Surrey to retire. Surrey's services received tardy recognition from Henry VII; in June 1501 he was sworn of the privy council, and was made lord treasurer. His knowledge of Scotland was used for diplomatic purposes, and in the same year he was sent to arrange the terms of peace with that country on the basis of the marriage of Henry VII's daughter Margaret to James IV. In 1503 he was at the head of the escort which conducted the princess from her grandmother's house of Colliweston, Northampton, to Edinburgh, where he was received with honour. After this he stood high in the king's confidence, was named one of the executors of his will, and was present on all great occasions at the court. In October 1508 he was sent to Antwerp to negotiate for the marriage of Henry's daughter Mary with Charles, prince of Castile. It was not, however, till after twenty years of hard service that Henry VII, shortly before his death, made a restoration of his forfeited manors.

On the accession of Henry VIII, Surrey's age, position, and experience marked him out as the chief adviser of the new king and the most influential member of the privy council. In March 1509 he was one of the commissioners to conclude a treaty with France. In July 1510 he was made earl marshal, and in November 1511 was a commissioner to conclude a treaty with Ferdinand the Catholic. But Surrey felt that, though he was valued by the young king, he did not become his trusted adviser, and he looked with jealous eyes on the rapid rise of Wolsey. He suspected Wolsey of encouraging the king in extravagance, and fostering his ambition for distinction in foreign affairs contrary to the cautious policy of his father. He consequently gave way to outbursts of ill-temper, and in September 1512, 'being discountenanced by the king, he left the court. Wolsey thinks it would be a good thing if he were ousted from his lodging there altogether' (Brewer, Calendar, i. No. 3443).

But Henry VIII was wise enough to see the advantage of maintaining a balance in his council, and he knew the worth of a man like Surrey. When, in 1513, he led his army into France, Surrey was left as lieutenant-general of the north. He had to meet the attack of James IV of Scotland, which was so decisively repelled on Flodden Field (9 September 1513), a victory due to the energy of Surrey in raising troops and in organising his army, as well as to the strategical skill which he showed in his dispositions for the battle. This is the more remarkable when we remember that he was then in his seventieth year. As a recognition of this signal service Surrey, on 1 February 1514, was created Duke of Norfolk, with an annuity of £40 out of the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, and further had a grant of an addition to his coat of arms—on a bend in his shield a demi-lion, gules, pierced in the mouth with an arrow.

Though Norfolk had gained distinction he did not gain influence over the king, whose policy was completely directed by Wolsey on lines contrary to the wishes of the old nobility. Norfolk was opposed to the marriage of the king's sister Mary with Louis XII of France, and vainly tried to prevent it. To console him for his failure he was chosen to conduct Mary to her husband, and waited till he was in France to wreak his ill-humour by dismissing Mary's English attendants. This act only threw Mary more completely on Wolsey's side, and so increased his influence. Norfolk must have felt the hopelessness of further opposition when, on 16 November 1515, he and the Duke of Suffolk conducted Wolsey, after his reception of the cardinal's hat, from the high altar to the door of Westminster Abbey. He gradually resigned himself to Wolsey's policy, and the Venetian envoy Giustinian reports that he was 'very intimate with the cardinal.'

In February 1516 the Duchess of Norfolk was godmother to the Princess Mary, and in the same year Norfolk was a commissioner for forming a league with the emperor and Spain in defence of the church. In May 1517 he showed his old vigour in putting down a riot of the London apprentices against foreigners, which, from the summary punishment it received, was known as 'Evil May day.' When the king went to the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520, Norfolk was left guardian of the kingdom. But a painful task was in store for him: in May 1521 he was appointed lord high steward for the trial of Edward, duke of Buckingham, on the charge of treason. Buckingham was his friend, and father of the wife of his eldest son; and few incidents are more characteristic of the temper of the time than that Norfolk should have consented to preside at such a trial, of which the issue was a foregone conclusion. With tears streaming down his face Norfolk passed sentence of death on a man with whose sentiments he entirely agreed, but had his reward in a grant of manors from Buckingham's forfeitures.

In spite of his great age Norfolk still continued at court, and was present at the reception of Charles V in May 1522. In December, however, he resigned the office of treasurer, but was present at parliament in April 1523. After that he retired to his castle of Framlingham, where he died on 21 May 1524, and was buried at Thetford Priory, of which he was patron. A tomb was raised over him, which at the dissolution of the monasteries was removed to the church of Framlingham. It is said that his body finally remained in the Howard Chapel at Lambeth, where his second wife was also buried.

The career of Howard is an excellent example of the process by which the Tudor kings converted the old nobility into dignified officials, and reduced them into entire dependence on the crown. Howard accepted the position, worked hard, abandoned all scruples, and gathered every possible reward. Polydore Vergil praises him as 'vir prudentia, gravitate et constantia praeditus.' By his first wife, Elizabeth Tilney, he had eight sons [incl. Howard, Thomas II, and Howard, Sir Edward], of whom five died young, and three daughters; by his second wife, Agnes, daughter of Sir Philip Tilney, he had three sons, including William Howard, first lord Howard of Effingham and four daughters. By the marriages of this numerous offspring the Howard family was connected with most of the chief families of England, and secured a lasting position.

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